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In addition to the wide variety of public interest practice settings discussed above, there are a multitude of public interest jobs that do not necessarily require a law degree but in which lawyering skills prove advantageous. More and more employers are hiring individuals with legal backgrounds and many lawyers who are disillusioned with traditional lawyering find satisfaction in these alternative career choices. If your interests and talents lie more in policy-making or program administration than in drafting legal documents, in resolving disputes through mediation or negotiation rather than through litigation or in combining your passion for journalism or counseling with your legal knowledge, an alternative to traditional lawyering may be appropriate for you.
Self-assessment, research, informational interviewing and networking become even more crucial in a nontraditional job search, which often involves changing fields. It is important to determine what an alternative career means and what it might entail. Employers may have to be convinced that your training and background will be transferrable and will meet their needs. It is important for you to reformulate your skills and experience into nonlegal terms to match the nature of the job, tailor your resume to the demands of the position you are seeking and be able to speak the specialized language of the field in which you want to work. Lastly, determine whether further education is required for the type of work you desire. Some questions to think about might be:
In your self-assessment, it is important to recognize and reflect on your transferrable skills. Many organizations value, for example, the legal writing and analytical skills a trained lawyer brings to the table. Being able to scan through documents, synthesize information and present it in a clear and concise manner is an asset. Being detailed oriented, too, can prove to valuable. Other areas that can prove to be transferable are problem solving skills, leadership and advocacy skills that one can develop while practicing law.
|Non-traditional careers/job titles (sampling)*|
|Environmental Protection Specialist||Research Director|
|Policy Advisor||Policy Director|
|Investigator||Government Relations/Public Affairs Director|
|Chief of Staff||Ethics Program Specialist|
|Civil Rights Investigator||Criminal Investigator|
|Analyst of Social Legislation||Foreign Service Officer|
|Financial Enforcement Specialist||Foreign Affairs Specialist|
|Law Librarian||Advocate/Advocacy Director|
|Community Relations Specialist||Grants Administrator|
|Development Director||Consumer Advocate|
|Non-profit Executive Director||Mediator/Ombudsman|
|Career Counselor||Admissions Officer|
|Program Analyst||Director of Planning|
|Chief Development Officer||Director of Alumni Affairs|
*These listings are a small sampling of opportunities in the public sector. For a more detailed look at job titles and descriptions for alternative careers, reference JD Preferred! - Legal Career Alternatives where these titles can be found.
The U.S. Government employs over 140,000 people in a variety of law-related positions in addition to approximately 20,000 attorneys in traditional legal jobs. Law-related positions exist in virtually every federal agency and similar types of jobs can be found on the state and municipal levels as well. Lawyers in nonlegal government jobs may formulate, analyze and implement policy; administer or monitor programs; investigate complaints; mediate disputes; manage personnel and provide guidance and counseling. Expertise in a particular policy area, a technical background or special abilities, such as foreign language proficiency, may be required for certain positions.
In addition to the usual job application route for these positions, special fellowship programs, such as the prestigious White House Fellowship or the Presidential Management Internships, have been created for entry into high-level policy-related arenas.
Spurred by a commitment to developing long-term solutions for distressed communities, an increasing number of law students are entering the field of economic development. Lawyers are able to provide legal and technical assistance to community-based organizations to help them develop affordable housing, businesses that can revitalize a neighborhood, job creation and job training programs and other projects that can bring resources to low- income communities. The work is often transactional or policy-oriented. Practice settings include legal services programs, community development corporations, government agencies and technical and financial intermediaries.
Many lawyers in public service settings use alternative dispute resolution during the course of their work. Most lawyers will find themselves in negotiations at some point in their career; in many cases, it will be a substantial part of their practice. Lawyers also turn to mediation and arbitration to resolve disputes in lieu of costly and sometimes bitter litigation. Increasingly, lawyers are trying to use collaborative practices so that parties avoid disputes at the outset.
Most full-time positions in the ADR field go to experienced lawyers who have built up substantive expertise in some area of the law and are subsequently hired as arbitrators or professional mediators. Some federal agencies - such as the US Trade Representative and the State Department Office of the Legal Advisor -- offer a great deal of exposure to ADR. There are also jobs within the court system, however these tend to involve coordinating mediators rather than actually mediating yourself. Finally, there are a growing number of clinical fellowships in law school ADR clinics available to students with an academic interest in the field. As with many nontraditional practice areas, networking is a critical way of breaking into ADR positions, particularly early in your career.
Harvard Law School offers many resources on ADR. Below are some links to clinics, journals and student groups at HLS with an ADR background.
Some generally useful websites on ADR and finding positions in ADR can be found below:
Lawyers interested in research, writing and consulting on policy issues might consider public service-oriented think tanks, such as The Center for the Study of Responsive Law. These jobs are quite competitive and often call for a proven academic track record and in-depth experience in the field. Most think tanks are located in either Washington, D.C. or in university cities.
An increasing number of lawyers are being hired by academic administrations, especially in law schools, in positions such as Dean of Students, career services office directors, counselors and law librarians. Other academic administrative jobs include undergraduate pre-law advisors and positions on the university-wide level, such as Affirmative Action Officer, Director of Community Affairs and Assistant to the President.
Management, administrative and lobbying positions with nonprofit organizations provide another major source of law-related public service jobs. Individuals with legal training can become directors and administrators of a diverse array of nonprofit organizations, such as art museums, youth job corps programs and international human rights organizations. Hundreds of nonprofits that aim to influence government policy, legislation and funding either have in-house lobbyists or hire lobbying agencies that specialize in public sector clients.
Other nontraditional options for lawyers include philanthropic foundations which support their grantees in transforming innovative ideas into public service realities. Many foundations hire lawyers as directors and program officers. Because these jobs have low turnover and are difficult to find, they are highly competitive. An increasing number of foundations have established fellowship programs that hire lawyers directly out of law school. For more information on working in foundations, you can download OPIA's Guide to Careers in Foundations for Lawyers (.pdf).
Bar associations also employ lawyers in management and program administration positions, such as continuing education for lawyers, lawyer assistance programs, referral and pro bono programs.
Political campaigns offer the opportunity to develop and refine a wide assortment of skills in an extremely fast-paced and flexible environment. Moreover, they give a unique perspective into the electoral process and the cares and concerns of elected officials, and can often lead directly or indirectly to government employment down the road. Campaign work is certainly not for everyone: there is usually little formal mentoring, little structured feedback, little administrative support, and little free time – and given the finite nature of the campaign cycle, often little long-term stability.
Lawyers who want to combine their legal knowledge with a journalism background can explore writing for legal public interest publications, such as the Environmental Law Reporter. OPIA has some hard copy resources for reference available in its office. Stop by Pound 329 to check them out. Check out the Harvard Law Library for updated versions of some of these books.
The Canadian Bar Association's Career Alternatives to Lawyers offers a good amount of detail on exploring alternatives to practicing law.
The National Association for Law School Professionals (NALP) Handouts
At the 2011 NALP Education Conference, Susan Gainen presented Alternative Careers: Now More Than Ever where she offered insight and information on additional resources for pursuing alternative careers. You can find one of the conference handouts here.
OPIA annually hosts a career panel focused on introducing students to career options outside the practice of law. Below you will find some of the prior public interest panelists, including where they are now and where they were when they were at Harvard Law School for the panel.
|Rachel Anderson '03||Director of Faith Outreach||the Center for Responsible Lending|
|Rebecca Plaut Mautner ’94||Affordable Housing & Community Development Consultant||Self-Employed|
|Lourdes Rivera||Program Officer||The Ford Foundation|
|View the webcast of of this panel discussion.|
|John Cisternino '04||Director of Research||The Tobin Project|
|Anna Dunbar-Hester||Program Coordinator & Policy Analyst||Prescription Access and Quality and Policy Analyst, Hospital Accountability Project|
|Sarah Hurwitz ’04||Special Assistant to the President, Senior Advisor to the Council on Women and Girls, and Senior Presidential Speechwriter||The White House|
|View the webcast of of this panel discussion.|
|Christie Getto Young||Policy and Budget Director||Office of State Senator Sal DiDomenico, Massachusetts State Senate|
|Brittny Saunders '08||Senior Advocate||Center for Social Inclusion|
|Matt Van Itallie '04||Chief Accountability Officer||Baltimore City Public Schools|
|Gina Walcott||Executive Director||Lawyers Concerned for Lawyers|
|View the webcast of this panel discussion.|
|Sharon Kelly McBride '04||Communications Director||Human Rights First|
|Rebecca Plaut Matuner '94||Affordable Housing & Community Development Consultant||Independent Consultant|
|Mike Wiser '03||Film Producer||PBS Frontline|
|View the webcast of this panel discussion.|
|Tom Davis||Manager of Strategic Operations||Preservation of Affordable Housing (POAH)|
|View a video of this panel.|
|Andrew Greenblatt '93||Founder and President||Vendorboon (Former Partner at Criterion Ventures)|
|Sheila Maith '87||Consultant||Maith Consultant (Former Advisor for the Federal Reserve Board of Governors)|
|Sheryl Goldstein||Director||Baltimore City Mayor's Office on Criminal Justice (Former Director of International Programs for the Center for Court Innovation)|
|Cliff Sarkin '05||In-House Counsel||VideoSurf (Former Associate at Children's Defense Fund and Policy Director at Insure the Uninsured)|
|Alicia Ely Yamin '91 (HSPH '96)||Inaugural Director/Affiliated Faculty Member||Program on the Health Rights of Women and Children/François-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights at Harvard University (Former Director of Research & Investigations at Physicians for Human Rights)|
|James O'Neal '82||Co-Founder/Executive Director||Legal Outreach|
|Seth Stern '01||Reporter/Author||Congressional Quarterly|
|Michael Zamore '99||Chief of Staff||Office of U.S. Senator Jeff Merkley|
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